The hindfoot is composed of three joints and links the midfoot to the ankle (talus). The top of the talus is connected to the two long bones of the lower leg (tibia and fibula), forming a hinge that allows the foot to move up and down. The heel bone (calcaneus) is the largest bone in the foot.
Plantar Fasciitis (inflammation to the plantar fascia ligament) is most commonly caused by strain injury causing micro tears to the ligament as it attaches to the heel bone or other areas of tightness on the sole of the foot. The plantar fascia is the largest ligament in the human body.
Achilles tendinitis is caused by repetitive or intense strain on the Achilles tendon, the band of tissue that connects your calf muscles to your heel bone. This tendon is used when you walk, run, jump or push up on your toes.
Stress fractures often result from increasing the amount or intensity of an activity too quickly.
Bone adapts gradually to increased loads through remodeling, a normal process that speeds up when the load on the bone increases. During remodeling, bone tissue is destroyed (resorption), then rebuilt.
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
Causes can include: severely flat feet, because flattened feet can stretch the tibial nerve. benign bony growths in the tarsal tunnel. varicose veins in the membrane surrounding the tibial nerve, which cause compression on the nerve.